Ibn Rushd’s contribution in Islamic philosophy, theology, medicine | By Umar Riaz Abbasi

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Ibn Rushd’s contribution in Islamic philosophy, theology, medicine


MUHAMMAD Ibn Rushd, known within the West as Averroes or Avén Ruiz or Averroes, was born in 1126 A.D. in Cordova (once the capital of Moorish Spain), and died in Marrakech, Morocco (Capital of the Almohad or al-Muwahhidun dynasty) on 10 December 1198 A.D. Ibn Rushd was a real polymath, with knowledge, expertise and genuine contribution to philosophy, Shariah (jurisprudence), medicine, astronomy, mathematics, physics and geography. Not surprisingly, he became referred to as the “Prince of Science”.

Ibn Rushd was a descendent of recognized family of researchers, exceeding expectations in Quranic ponders and philosophy, and with a long and well-respected convention of lawful and open benefit.

Ibn Rushd is some of the time alluded to the grandson (Al-Hafid), since his granddad who carried the same title, utilized to be the fantastic judge (Qadi) of Cordoba.

Ibn Rushd (the granddad) was the creator of a celebrated treatise in Maliki law, the kitab al-Mugad Dimat al Mumahhidat. Ibn Rushd’s father, Abu Al-Qasim Ahmad was too a Qadi.

Ibn Rushd cherished books. It is said that he never missed perusing or composing but the day he got hitched and the day his father kicked the bucket. Hence, it isn’t astounding that he was productive and exhaustive creator.

Ibn Rushd’s compositions spread more than 20,000 pages, the foremost popular of which bargain with reasoning, medication, rationale and law. He composed 20 books on medication.

His work includes: Tahfut at Tahafut (The Incoherence of the Ambiguity): It was composed within the fashion of a discourse against al-Ghazali’s claims in Tahafut alfalasifa (The Confusion of the Philosophers).

Talkis Kitab al-Jadal (Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s Topics).Fasl al-Maqal Fi Ma bayn al-Sharia wa Al-Hukma Min Al-Ittisal (Faith & Reason).

Al-Kashf ‘an manahij al-’adla fi ‘aqaid al-mila (Clarifying the systems of proof in the beliefs of the nation {Muslims}).Al-Da’ruri fi Isul al-Fiqh: a summary of al-Ghazali’s Mustasfa.

Bidâyat al-Mujtahid wa Nihâyat al-Muqta_id: a textbook of Maliki doctrine in a comparative framework.Al-Bayân wa’l-Ta__îl, wa’l-Shar_ wa’l-Tawjîh wa’l-Ta’lîl fi Masâ’il al-Mustakhraja: a long and detailed commentary based on the Mustakhraja of Mu_ammad al-’Utbî al-Qurtubî.Kulliyat Fi A-Tibb (“Generalities”, i.e. general medicine): known in its Latin translation as Colliget.

A commentary on The Canon of Medicine (Qanun fi ‘t-tibb) of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037).Maqala fi ‘1-Tiryaq (“Treatise on Theriac”).Averroes on Plato’s Republic.

Ibn Rushd incredibly respected Aristotle and considered him a mammoth who had achieved the truth.

He respected Aristotle as encapsulating the most noteworthy improvement of the human judgment skills.

It is said that Ibn Rushd caught on, and translated and logically talked about Aristotle’s reasoning more than any of his forerunners or counterparts.

Ibn Rushd kept up that the most profound truths must be drawn closer by implies of levelheaded examination which reasoning could lead to the ultimate truth.

He acknowledged disclosure, and endeavored to harmonize religion with logic without amalgamating them or annihilating their contrasts.

He accepted the Qur’an contained the most noteworthy truth whereas keeping up that its words ought to not be taken actually. He contended that reasoning affirms and does not negate the disclosure.

He fought that reasoning is nothing more than the efficient examining into the marvel of creation, uncovering God’s intelligence and might. Consequently, disclosure directs the consideration of philosophy.

In the Muslim world, Ibn Rushd is known above all for his Tahfut at Tahafut (The Incoherence of the Incoherence) and Mabâdi ‘l-Falâsifah (The Principles of Philosophy).

In Tahfut at Tahafut, Ibn Rushd bitterly attacked Al-Ghazili’s Tahafut al-falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), a work in which the 12th century theologian Al-Ghazali sought a strengthening of piety by attacking the philosophers.

Ibn Rushd, point by point, discussed the “alleged” errors in al-Ghazali’s views and methodology.

He affirmed that the evidence brought out by al-Ghazali’s attack on philosophers arises when isolated components of philosophy are taken out of context, appearing to contradict the remainder.

The philosophical, religious and legal works of Ibn Rusd have been studied more thoroughly than his medical books.

Among his mentors in medicine were Ali Abu Ja’far Ibn harun al-Tarrajani and Abu marwan Ibn Jurrayul (or Hazbul, according to al-Safadi). His important contribution to medicine was “Al- Kulliyat fi Al-Tibb” (Colliget or “Generalities on Medicine”), which was written between 1153 and 1169.

The Colliget was translated to Hebrew and Latin 90 years later and taught in Europe until the 18th century.

This treaty is a summary of the medical science at that time and is subdivided into seven books:Tashrih al-a’lda’ (“Anatomy of Organs”),al-Sihha (“Health”),al-Marad (“Sickness”),al-’Alamat (“Symptoms”),al-Adwiya wa ‘l-aghdhiya (“Drugs and Foods”),Hifz al-sihha (“Hygiene”),andShifa al-amrad (“Therapy”).

These facts tells us about the glorious Past of Muslim Thinkers. If we want to regain our pride then we need to follow footsteps of great thinker Ibn Rushd.

—The writer is PhD in Islamic Studies, author and academic writer & lecturer at National University of Modern Languages Islamabad.

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