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In Pakistan, crimes committed by minors are rarely identified separately which prevents them from receiving appropriate treatment, further adding to complexities. Juvenile delinquency is one of the least researched topics.
In order to discuss Pakistan’s juvenile justice system we first need to have a better understanding of what Juvenile delinquency is and what meaning countries across the world associate with this term. This phrase refers to breaking or failing to comply with rules. Juvenile delinquency is term used to describe someone who violates the law and is typically under age of 18.
Anyone who is over the legally designated juvenile age is considered an adult, and if they commit a crime, they will be tried and found guilty using the criminal justice system. A person who is younger than this age is, nevertheless, referred to as a juvenile. If a juvenile commits a crime, he is tried under the juvenile justice system and, if found guilty, is sent to a therapeutic home, rehabilitation facility or special juvenile detention facility.
A minimum age and a maximum age define a juvenile. If a person commits a crime while being under the age of majority, they are not held crime responsible; instead, the minor’s parents or guardians are held liable. This division of adult, juvenile and minor is flexible with the intensity of the crime committed.
Fowl typhoid is an acute or chronic septicaemia poultry infection caused by Salmonella Gallinarum. While the developed countries have eradicated fowl typhoid from commercial poultry via screening and culling of the infected flock, it remains endemic in many developing countries, including Pakistan.
Antibiotics are widely used to control fowl typhoid in poultry. The extensive misuse of antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic resistance Salmonella Gallinarum. To overcome this issue, various alternatives to antibiotics are available; one potential strategy is the use of probiotics. Probiotics are live microorganisms that exert a beneficial effect on the host by improving the intestinal balance. Probiotics like lactobacilli are beneficial microbes that kill the growth of harmful bacteria (Salmonella Gallinarum).
This research work was financially supported through a research grant provided by the HEC, under which Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated and identified from the liver and spleen of fowl typhoid affected chickens. We also separated and identified lactobacilli from the healthy chicken gut (caeca and ileum).
Lactobacilli were screened for their antibacterial activity against Salmonella Gallinarum and probiotic properties of selected lactobacilli were identified in the laboratory. After that, lactobacilli were given to broilers infected with Salmonella Gallinarum to analyze their effect on excluding Salmonella Gallinarum in poultry gut.
We identified that Limosilactobacillus fermentum (PC-10 and PC-76) and Weissella viridescens (PC-45) significantly reduced (~2log) growth of Salmonella Gallinarum in the broiler gut. These probiotic strains also improved weight gain, immune response and regulated the intestinal microbiota of broilers.
DR MUHAMMAD NAWAZ
I write this letter with a heavy heart and an exasperated spirit as I once again find myself plunged into darkness due to the incessant issue of load-shedding in our city, Turbat. Turbat is the second largest city of Balochistan and is considered the hottest city of Pakistan, yet its residents are suffering from the menace of load-shedding on a daily basis. It is with deep concern and a sense of urgency that I express my thoughts on this matter, hoping that it will garner the attention it deserves from our policymakers and the community at large.
Load-shedding has become an all-too-familiar term in our lives, disrupting our daily routines, hampering businesses and severely impacting the overall quality of life. For years, we have grappled with power shortages, leading to hours of power cuts each day. The consequences of this prolonged problem are dire and evident, leaving citizens in frustration and at times, despair.
Furthermore, load-shedding takes a toll on the mental and physical well-being of individuals and families. The erratic power supply disrupts sleep patterns, increases stress levels and can even pose health risks, particularly for the vulnerable segments of the population such as the elderly and the sick. It also hinders students from studying and performing well in their educational pursuits which can have long-lasting effects on their future prospects. I request the Government of Balochistan to solve the issue of load-shedding and provide light regularly to the citizens.
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I would just like to say that ‘Pakistan Observer’ is the best English newspaper, as we get different kinds of news from it. It demonstrates freedom of the press because it does not shy away from publishing facts. But it does that in a fair way and includes all the elements. The website is fantastic and thanks for always providing us with the most up-to-date news from around the world.