Azerbaijan marks one of the most significant days in its history – the creation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) – on May 28.


Azerbaijan Democratic Republic became the first secular republic in the Muslim world. Azerbaijan celebrates the state holiday on May 28, the Republic Day.

The Azerbaijan National Council in Tiflis, which was headed by MammadaminRasulzade, proclaimed the creation of the ADR on May 28, 1918. The words of Rasulzade “The flag raised once will never be lowered” made the history.

The city of Ganja became the temporary capital of the ADR and the Azerbaijani government moved from Tiflis to Ganja on June 16, 1918.

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and Turkey concluded an agreement on peace and friendship on June 4, 1918. The Azerbaijani language was declared the ADR state language on June 27, 1918.

The armed forces of the Baku Council of the People’s Commissars launched an offensive against Ganja on June 12, 1918. The combined Turkish-Azerbaijani troops defeated the Bolshevik army at Goychay.

The Turkish-Azerbaijani army entered Baku on September 15, 1918, and the city was declared the capital of the ADR.

The Parliament of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was opened on December 7, 1918, initially consisting of 97 members.

Ali MardanTopchubashov became chairman of the parliament, Ahmad Aghayev became his deputy.

The Supreme Council of the victorious countries in the First World War unanimously decided to recognize the de facto independence of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic on January 11, 1920.

Unfortunately, ADR lasted only 23 months. The 11th Red Army troops approached the northern borders of Azerbaijan in the mid-April, 1920.

In late April, the Red Army crossed the borders and began the occupation of ADR. On April 28, the Red Army entered Baku and thus the ADR ceased to exist.

Although the ADR fell and not having managed to fully achieve its goals, the idea of independence, enshrined in mind of Azerbaijanis, was not forgotten.

After the USSR collapse, Azerbaijan restored its independence in 1991, declaring itself the heir to the ADR and restoring the attributes of Democratic Azerbaijan – the flag, the emblem and the anthem.

Established in 1918, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is a national treasure and the brightest page in the history of Azerbaijan.

The following years comprise significant stages of the country’s life, marked by bright events, great achievements of the Azerbaijani people.

All this has created the economic, intellectual and cultural potential of today’s independent Azerbaijan.

The creation and activities of ADR showed the world the independence of Azerbaijan, the implementation of the freedom-loving hopes of the Azerbaijani people, vitally connected with their statehood.

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