Pakistan’s Nuclear policy in South – Asia

Mohsan Saleem Ullah

SINCE Pakistan’s inception as an independent Muslim state, India has been involved explicitly, in destabilizing this recently born land. It is evident to Pakistani society and its leadership that India is a Hindu polity aims to destroy Pakistan’s separate culture and political identity Muslim community in the sub-continent.
These facts cannot be denounced on the grounds of a long political and territorial history, depicting India’s barbaric acts towards this nation. Several analysts believe that the major cause of such political tensions between Islamic Pakistan and secular India is due to the non-congruent ideology of the respective countries. It was not until when the contention gradually grew to an extent between these two states, which took a tangible form.
Thus, engaging them in a brutal conflict over the state of Kashmir, which led them to wage four wars in the years 1947, 1965,1971 and 1999also known as the Kargil war. Though Pakistan’s prerogative over the disputed state is recognized by Kashmir’s leadership andalso bythe other nations too, but unfortunately India is not willing to compromise their stance on the disputed Kashmir at international forums, partly for their strategic reasons and mainly due to the legitimate ideology on which the country was founded. Under these circumstances, Pakistan desired to acquire a nuclear capability to encounter a rival nuclear weaponry, state, as neither the external support nor Pakistan’s own security would ensure its survival. In the long, difficult journey of developing this capability, Pakistan had to experience a determined western opposition, Pakistan’s scientist, and its army along with unsung heroes, who played a vital role. Having said that, Pakistan’s nuclear acquisition is not a luxury, however, a mere tool to ensure its survival.
According to a recently released list of countries containing biggest stockpiles of nuclear weapons across the world, Pakistan stands at sixth position and India at seventh. Pakistan’s nuclear doctrine has been explicitly based on to forge a credible deterrent to counter India and to enhance its nuclear capabilities against the perceived external threats. Pakistan’s foreign policy whirls around, the threats from anopponent neighbor and consolidating the state of Kashmir within Pakistan. Conventional superiority within the region of South Asia. In addition, Pakistan’s nuclear potential has transpired, as the most technically advanced amongst Muslim world and also as a symbol of nationhood; fusing a society within the country.
Recently in the year 1998, Pakistan built a 40-50 megawatt heavy water Khushab plutonium production reacorwith Chinese help. In addition, three heavy reactors were also installed at the same site, which is currently operational. Pakistan also built a plutonium reprocessing plant in the New Laboratory facility at the Pakistan Institute of science and technology and further reactors were also built at the same location and another reprocessing plant is under construction in Chashma. To further enhance nuclear capability, Pakistan began to produce highly enriched uranium (HEU) by using the gas centrifuge uranium. This process is used to increase the concentration of uranium 235 isotopes. The same technology is being used by Iran in their nuclear weapon program. India is a principal country in South Asia, with a fact that greater in size, population and logistic systems in comparison with the bordering countries. Furthermore, it is equipped with the most advanced technological and industrial base, including the biggest armament industry, which has a diversity of production and the largest research center samongst the third world countries. Alike other south Asian countries, Pakistan lags in arms production and have to rely on the imports for their defence.
The aforementioned arms supremacy and consistent external assistance allow India to influence the other weaker states in the region. In the absence of any external support, our rival desires Pakistan to main a status quo and avoid taking up the disputed case of Kashmir in the international forums. To maintain sovereignty and coercion free atmosphere, Pakistan is only left with the option of acquisition of the nuclear weapons.
Many Indian scholars believe that Pakistan’s nuclear weapons, besides encountering India’s nuclear deterrence, has also provided an umbrella under which Pakistan may try to resolve the disputed case of Kashmir. Furthermore, Pakistan’s nuclear weapons have the ability to challenge India’s malign intention of taking a nuclear decision and the acquisition of the state of Kashmir. Therefore, unlike France and Britain, which developed their nuclear weapons for the sake of distinction and a desire to team up with the powerful league of nuclear nations, Pakistan developed it to encounter the wickedness of Indian regime and to provide abulwark against Indians aggressive designs.
It remains evident specifically in the case of Pakistan that alliances with super powers did not prove to be a good decision. As in the past, it had been cleared that the US did not prove to be a reliable ally in strengthening Pakistan’s military against India. In fact, the US arms embargo and aid suspensions for several years directly affected Pakistan, placing Islamabad in a weaker position vis-à-via New Delhi. Furthermore, US halted military aids and much-needed supplies of spare parts that affected the military operations against militants; a global war against terrorism in which Pakistan was left isolated.
By the possession of nuclear weapons, Pakistan has strengthened its bargaining position and provided a strong support to its foreign policy. This major development has provided a peace between the two nations. Our defence analyst believes that India cannot afford to launch any nuclear warfare against Pakistan, as they are well aware of the consequence in exchange of nuclear strikes.

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