Hira Rasheed Memon
Heat stroke, also known as sunstroke, thermic fever or siriasis, happens when the body’s mechanisms for controlling temperature fail. Heat stroke is a life-threatening emergency needing immediate treatment. While many people feel sick and faint during heat waves, most of these people suffer from heat exhaustion, a related condition usually less serious than heat stroke. There are two types of heat stroke: classic, non-exertional heat stroke (NEHS) and exertional heat stroke (EHS). Classic heat stroke occurs most commonly in very young or older individuals, who have health risks and are in poor environmental conditions. Exertional heat stroke occurs more often in younger, healthy individuals who participate in strenuous physical activity.
Working or exercising in hot conditions or weather without drinking enough fluids is the main cause of heat stroke. You can get heat stroke by not replacing lost fluids over days or weeks, or you can bring it on in a few hours by exercising strenuously on a hot day without drinking plenty of liquids first. Liquids help to cool us down by allowing the body to produce sweat. However, liquids are also necessary for bodily functions, such as keeping up blood pressure.
You can lose large amounts of body fluid in the form of sweat without noticing any effects, but at a certain point the body will reserve the remaining fluid for vital functions and stop sweating. The body’s core temperature then shoots up, and cells start dying. Sweat evaporates more rapidly in dry weather, cooling body more efficiently than in humid weather. When working in humid conditions, the core temperature rises more rapidly. This is why weather forecasts add a humidity factor or heat index to represent how you will actually feel outdoors.