Follow the Straight Path

The Spirit Of Islam

Khalid Baig

ONCE some Jewish scholars said to Sayyidna Umar bin Khattab (RA), ‘The Quran contains a verse that if it had been revealed to us, we would have designated a day to celebrate its revelation.’ Upon enquiry they mentioned the verse: “This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” [Al-Maida 5:3] “Yes, I know, the time and place when it was revealed,” he replied. Indeed it was a historic day. It was the day of Arafa during the farewell Hajj of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). This verse announced the completion of a historic process that had started with the coming to earth of Sayyidna Adam (AS). Allah sent His guidance with him and informed him that in the generations to come there would be additional messengers. The process continued through the 124,000 prophets who were sent to different lands at different times. It culminated with the coming of the Last Messenger, the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He received revelations over a twenty-three year period. Then during the Farewell Hajj, on the plain of Arafat, in the presence of nearly 150,000 companions, this verse announced that it was all done!
The full significance of this message must never escape us. Islam is unlike all previous revealed religions in one crucial respect. All of them came with expiration dates. Islam has none. The Guidance from Allah had been completed. The religion had been perfected. There would be no new message, no new prophet, no new Shariah, and no new command until the Last Day! The Straight Path has been laid out. Our job is only to follow it, not to try to discover new paths. In Jummah khutbahs this Ummah has been repeating the hadith: “I warn you of the newly invented matters (in the religion), and every newly invented matter is bidah, and every bidah is misguidance, and every misguidance is in the Hellfire.” (an-Nasaa’ee). In Islamic terminology, Sunnah and Bidah are antonyms. Sunnah literally means path, and it is the path shown to us by the Prophet (PBUH). This includes the Shariah teachings derived from Qur’an, Hadith, the consensus of the companions, and the ijtehad of the qualified imams. Bidah means adding or changing articles of faith or religious practices. It can take many forms. One may change the occasion of a prescribed act, thereby extending it to occasions for which it was not meant. One may add restrictions on a desired act that the Shariah had not imposed. One may change the style or form of such an act. One may start doing something collectively that was to be performed individually. Or one may change the Shariah status of an act from permissible to mandatory. Of course, one may also add a ritual where none existed. These are all forms of bidah. They are all forbidden.
Bidat is like fake currency that tries to drive out the good currency. By design it has the appearance of a virtuous religious act. But it lies outside the Shariah. So do its sources, which, in a great number of cases can be traced to non-Islamic influence from surrounding communities with which Muslim communities historically came into contact. Hence the telltale signs that set it apart from Sunnah. First, bidahs normally vary from region to region— and over time— revealing their local, non-Islamic source. This is unlike the genuine religious practices that maintain the same form everywhere. No matter where he comes from, a follower of, say, Hanafi Fiqh, will be offering salat in exactly the same way, right down to the minutest detail – like when to raise the index finger. In contrast, the bidah practices surrounding, marriage or death in the Indo-Pak subcontinent vary from those in Arabia or Africa.
Second, the bidah practices are largely transmitted through oral tradition. Many of these have a pseudo-legal, ritualistic framework of their own, but one would be hard pressed to find it in the standard legal texts! Rather it lives in the folklore. Example: consider the practice of shaking hands after finishing the salat. Open the chapter on salat in your fiqha book. It lists all the steps, in great detail, involved in offering salat. Does it mention the handshake as well? No. The handshake comes from folklore, not from an authentic text, a clue that it may be a bidah, which it is. Similarly consider the rituals normally performed upon the death of a person. Again the fiqha books describe in great detail how the funeral and burial should be done. But do they also mention that on the third day (or the tenth or the fortieth), a gathering should be arranged where participants should recite the Quran for the benefit of the deceased and after which they should be served with dinner? Again the answer is no. Again the reason is that all of these common practices are not part of the Shariah. They are an addition or bidah. In reality bidahs are a tremendous burden. Islamic teachings are simple and easy and life would be much simpler if all bidahs were removed from it. When a person dies, Islam teaches that others should be providing food to the bereaved family. Bidat requires the exact opposite, that the bereaved should feed all visitors, a widespread practice in Muslim communities in Asia. Other bidahs are also like that. A burden. And burden in Hereafter will be much bigger, for “every bidah is in Fire.” — Courtesy: Albalagh.net

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