WATER is one of the most important substances on earth all plants and animals must have water to survive, if there was no water there would be no life on earth. Apart from drinking it to survive, people have many other uses of water. We all use water for eating, drinking, cleaning and a lot more without this important substance we cannot survive, a careless attitude towards water management is not acceptable we waste water on daily basis being an individual we have some responsibilities regarding water management but on governmental basis the responsibilities are more higher. Pakistan only rely on Indus Water but indeed doesn’t seems to be very careful about “Indus Water Treaty”It is21st world’s largest river in terms of flow, Indus River is strategically vital resource for Pakistan For cultivation, industrialization this river is very important & for hydropower plant Indus is again important for Pakistan. India’s building large dams can cut the supply to Pakistan which can result in to dangerous consequences for Pakistan. We had three major floods already and that happened because of India, water level is decreasing day by day and we are contaminating the water, we need to understand water can be a reason of war.
Starting with demographics of Indus River: It Flows from west Tibet China mountains, then flow towards India, Kashmir, Gilgit Baltistan, then in KPK, Punjab, Sindh and goes to Port Karachi while flows in to Arabian Sea. There are so many but five popular rivers adding in to River Indus all of them are emerging from Punjab (JHELUM, CHENAB, RAVI, BEAS & SUTLEJ)
After Pak-India independence the use of the waters and its 5 tributaries became a major dispute between them.But basic negotiations between India and Pakistan had little success until August, 1951, when David E. Lilienthal, former head of both the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Atomic Energy Commission, did an on-the-spot article for Collier’s magazine. The trip was also sponsored by the magazine, Lilienthal noted that almost half the Indus waters, with a flow equal to that of the Nile and four times that of the Colorado, are wasted during the summer months, either through evaporation or flow into the Arabian Sea. He suggested that the problem was economic, not political, and that it should be settled by engineers agreeing on a unified development of the basin. He thought it conceivable that the World Bank might help.
The World Bank thought so too. Within a month of the article’s publication, Eugene R. Black, the Bank president, made a “good offices” proposal to both India and Pakistan, and it was accepted. But as negotiations continued, it became apparent that Lilienthal’s unified development idea had ignored the deep enmity of India and Pakistan. The waters would have to be split.The Bank proposed that India be given the waters of the Indus’ three eastern tributaries-the Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi whereas to Pakistan the waters of the three western rivers i.e. Chenab, Jhelum, and the Indus proper. The Kabul, which rises in Afghanistan and flows into Pakistan, was excluded.
Tipton study report on Indus water treaty was play down it was the most important, real and accurate however only Lilienthal’s report was highlighted. Tipton observed that this is a serious issue and it can turn in to war even.
Further complicating this, the canals and barrages built under British rule to serve a unified area were, under partition, left pretty much on the Pakistani side of the border. But unfortunately we couldn’t maintain the canals and barrages.
According to Lilienthal in his article Pakistan due to Political Instability was unable to talk to Indus Water issue while India became impatient and threatened Pakistan that now there is to settlement or no settlement but later this issue was resolved between the two countries in the mediation of World Bank. But the big question is where the mediator is now? Why World Bank can’t question India on its violations. India seems to be violating “Indus Water Treaty” many times According to the Treaty India can only construct Dams on Sutlej, Beas and Ravi while Pakistan can construct Dams on Chenab, Jhelum & Indus.Sutlej, Beas & Ravi are allocated for exclusive use by India before they enter Pakistan. Since we lost access of eastern rivers so Pakistan received one time financial compensation for the loss of lifetime water.
India has already constructed 80 plus dams on territories of Pakistan that is a clear violation of Indus Water Treaty. Pakistan was little concerned right after 2000 in Musharraf’s period, so far the stand of Pakistan was clear on making of TULBUL Navigation Project (Wullar Barrage) It was proposed to be built at the mouth of wullar lake baramulla district of Kashmir Valley.The project would adversely affect the triple canal project, upper Chenab canal, Upper Jhelum Canal & lower Bari doab Canal. India would control the Jhelum River during winters. Mangla dam would be adversely affected. Project seemed to be a security threat to Pakistan sovereignty.
One of the errors from Pakistan side is lack of clarity in treaty, we did not define storage tank in a treaty properly and Pakistan never took this issue to environmentalists. Always be clear and give definition of specific things before preceding a case or signing a treaty, regarding Pakistan this was a mistake and negligence by Pakistani drafters of that time. Water war against Pakistan started in 1947 actually and now it has come to a serious stage which needs to be resolved. We need to construct more dams, we need to go on conservation (how to save water) and we on individual basis can also save it. Indian media is very clear on their National Interest but do we are? We all Journalists and media persons should highlight this issue, we need to talk more and more on this.